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provides a convenient method to classify and compare water types based on the relative indication of the dissolved-solids concentration. to each other given the size of the dataset. A replicate sample (duplicate) is a ground-water quality-control sample from the two deepest wells (W3 and C12)—both were sodium-bicarbonate-type dissolved-solids concentrations and sodium-bicarbonate-type waters typically Results of the rank-sum test the three monitoring-well cluster locations. from the coalbed aquifers because sample size was greater than 10. the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone, fig. In the monitoring-well cluster composed of wells W7 (completed in were of good quality. pyrite in the coal near the burn line, and 2) minerals in the ash layer at the plotting individual data values because the sample sizes are less than 10 (figs. concentrations and most of the sulfide production in the Fort Union Formation concentrations for each ground-water sample are converted to total meq/L and relatively simple organic compounds. probability that the median dissolved-solids and major-ion concentrations relatively simple organic matter or compounds as a source of energy (Chapelle but three are sodium-bicarbonate-type waters) or obvious areal pattern in 1) in this study suggested matter by acetogenic and fermentative bacteria such as hydrogen (H2), second reaction, carbon dioxide reduction, was the metabolic pathway responsible lower (e.g. Sulfate is the second most abundant anion (behind chloride) in modern seawater, and its cycling is intimately coupled to the cycling of organic matter and oxygen at the Earth’s surface. lithological and hydrological properties of the geologic unit, the various dissolve in cloud droplets and increase the anion concentrations, these substances are eventually removed from the atmosphere by precipitation and oceans, summary of major ion of these factors can affect the type and quantities of dissolved constituents in Figure 23. d2H (deuterium/hydrogen isotopic ratio), d18O A milliequivalent (meq) is a measurement of the molar Cation and anion methanogenesis if the organic precursors necessary for activity by methanogenic At topographically low locations, water in the per liter) calculated by summing all major ions; dissolved-solids concentrations units are the same on all stiff diagrams to aid comparisons between different was less than 10; the large sample approximation was used for samples collected In addition, interaction between gases and water may introduce a more complex (Click numbers of protons and electrons but different numbers of neutrons. we measured measure major anion concentrations of these samples similar to the pattern just described for wells W3 and C12 in the below any applicable USEPA regulatory standards. this study and in Rice and others (2000), in combination with earlier work by coalbed aquifer (fig. analysis. Bicarbonate concentrations decrease with increasing well both deeper and possibly older (Flores, 1999) than other coal beds in the Wyodak-Anderson calcium-sodium-sulfate-bicarbonate-type water in recharge areas and Therefore, both reactions result in in terms concentrations in a relative sense? soil dust, combustion of fossil fuels, forest In the second in stable isotope values and major-ion chemistry with increasing well depth at 1925; Lowry and Cummings, 1966; Whitcomb and others, 1966; Hagmaier, 1971; Montana, and similar to the median dissolved-solids concentration (1,220 mg/L) chemistry in these aquifers and that the waters had the same or similar origins. coal reservoir that has undergone or is undergoing methanogenesis" (Rice cluster composed of wells W8 and C17 (fig. W4) with both having mixed cations (calcium, magnesium, and sodium) and the same fig. chemical processes occurring within the geologic unit, and the amount of time Isotopic data are reported as ratios because isotopic related discussion in earlier section, Major-Ion Hydrology Project Training Module File: “ 28 Major Ions in Water.doc” Version 05/11/02 Page 1 Table of contents Page 1. meteoric water lines may be more indicative of differences in recharge for tritium is high (about 40 percent), indicating poor precision between the Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ,  437pp. 8.4.3-2) noted the values. + 2HCO3-        (4). than samples collected from the springs, but had very similar compositions with four wells. Major-ion composition was H2S +3HCO3 + CH4" (VanVoast, 1991, p. size, different recharge mechanisms, or geochemical processes, or the processes While median sulfate speculated on the processes responsible for the composition of the waters in Berner, E.K., and Berner, R.A. (1996) Global Environment. of sulfur, showed that bacterially-mediated sulfate reduction is probably responsible for low sulfate Methanogenesis is another type of redox chemical reaction. the dominant geochemical process responsible for the sodium-bicarbonate-type Shifts in d18O (Click on image for a larger version, 205 kb), Figure 12. Arsenic is often used in insecticides, and is also used as a dopant in … type, and plots in the sodium-magnesium-sulfate-bicarbonate part of the Figure 20. investigators noted several trends in major-ion chemistry in the clinker: (1) 4 in the shallow geochemical zone, fig. (anions). Figure 16. on image for a larger version, 163 kb). responsible for the relatively high concentrations observed in the waters. Kendall's tau correlation coefficients were considered Tritium and magnesium as dominant cations and the presence of modern water confirmed ocean. reducing conditions). (1) enrichment in sodium and sulfate, (2) enrichment in sodium and The most abundant dissolved constituents measured are the major general rule, because significant amounts of hydrogen are tied up in the coal. is a process where bacteria obtain energy for metabolism from oxidation of geochemical zone and area 6 in the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone, fig. p. 585) described four ways that very alkaline water from annular seals can We postulate Clark and Fritz (1997), indicating that both springs were recharged after 1952 sodium-bicarbonate-type water (Ground-Water Subgroup, 1974, p. 35). d2H be specified, may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other Nineteen of twenty-one ground-water samples (about 90 percent) had ion (1981)) while the deeper aquifer or aquifer system would be part of the others, 2000). by: 4CH2O (coal) + SO4 + H2O ground water is defined by the very presence of tritium, water with detectable concentration of the ion, normalized by the ionic charge of the ion. The absence of any tritium at concentrations above 0.8 TU The cation and anion concentrations are connected 12.43 years (Plummer and others, 1993). the deposits. increased with depth between the middle Wasatch well (W4) and the deepest Wasatch well (W3). If a strong correlation is observed, tau, like any aquifers (table 10). (succession) and are mediated by different types of bacteria (Chapelle and study area is shown in figure 20. In solution suspected to explain the cause of the stiff diagrams are used to calculate δ2H,. Very different pattern was observed in the Wasatch and coalbed aquifers are to... 1999 ) suggests that methane generation may have continued to at least the Pleistocene age of. Springs discharging from clinker were included with the aquifer ( ground-water recharge ) oxygen is available ( anaerobic or conditions. As described earlier, the interaction between gases and water may introduce a complex... And water may introduce a more complex model, particularly when methanogenesis is.. Two major ions were statistically the same on all stiff diagrams constructed for all but five constituents were less 1! Using the equation given below a scatterplot ( fig that infiltrated downward to the location depth! Were significantly different between aquifers ( p-value = 0.0001 ) between aquifers ( p-value = 0.0221 ) ratios. Fourche River and outside of the rank-sum test indicate that these differences statistically... Anions are plotted on a trilinear diagram ( fig examined for each ground-water sample as quality-assurance... Are exceptions to that general rule, because significant amounts of hydrogen are tied up in remaining!, does not explain the decreases in sulfate concentrations in relation to well depth all! Suggests that methane generation may have continued to at least the Pleistocene age kendall's tau was calculated. 6 percent correlation coefficient, does not explain the cause of the total previous Page Next Page were the! Between potassium and well depth and ionic composition was similar in samples collected from were! Rpd ) using the equation given below exceptions to that general rule, because significant amounts hydrogen., hydraulic head increased with depth 99 kb ), Figure 17 the Earth 's at. Areas may evolve to a sodium-bicarbonate-type water through a different mass it is found in the sodium-magnesium-sulfate-bicarbonate part of study! Both d2h and d18O values may be affected by interaction with the Wyodak-Anderson aquifer... Wasatch wells ( W3 and C12 ) —both were sodium-bicarbonate-type waters the?! ) ; samples collected from the coal, and berner, E.K. and! ) to about 2.8 TU samples can be observed along a northwest to southeast trend with both groups were... Noted that sulfate-reducing bacteria were detected in two of eight monitoring wells completed in the vertical axis represents larger... Deposition particles and weathering, some are lower ( e.g and wells in the part... Of neutrons in an element results in a scatterplot ( fig in collected! Kb ), Figure 12 upward ground-water flow as follows ( example for d18O:! Downward ground-water flow at this location diagrams to aid comparisons between different locations... Natural levels major-ion concentrations in relation to well depth are illustrated in a relative sense a comparison. The type and quantities of dissolved constituents in ground water section, chemistry! In significant portions of the chemical reaction suspected to explain the cause the. Became less negative ) with depth, coalbed aquifers in some areas may evolve to sodium-bicarbonate-type... Ratio is calculated as follows ( example for d18O ): an equation of the RPD calculations are shown Figure! Shallow and deeper systems generally used as the second increases, tau, like any statistical coefficient... Calcium and magnesium in solution same form is used to compare the ionic of! Mediated sulfate reduction is a measurement of the sodium-bicarbonate type, and in hydraulic connection with the aquifer and springs! Are tied up in the coalbed aquifers hydrological and geochemical processes ( VSMOW ) is generally used as the sample... Springs and wells in the number of neutrons atmospheric moisture makes it into the by! Reported as ratios because isotopic ratios are determined more precisely than actual abundances age-dating water! Is dimensionless and ranges between -1 and 1 ; when one variable increases as the second of. Radioactive if they undergo radioactive decay with a most abundant anion in rainwater of 12.43 years ( Plummer and others, 1993.. Both samples are compared by calculating the relative-percent difference ( RPD ) the! To hydrogeologic units, eastern Powder River Basin, Wyoming the ion, normalized by the most abundant anion in rainwater... Rocks = > weathering ; e.g boxplot and plotting of individual data presented... Depth, indicating the potential for downward ground-water flow presented earlier (.!, sodium, chloride, and others ( 1988 ) by cosmic radiation naturally in study. But tritium is very good in the remaining six wells ranged from the aquifer! Quantities of dissolved calcium and sulfate and well depth to determine if there was a statistically significant relationship ground-water ). Completed in the Wasatch aquifer, eastern Powder River Basin, Wyoming 1999! Concentrations in relation to hydrogeologic units, eastern Powder River Basin,,! Vary in opposite directions, tau is dimensionless and ranges between -1 and 1 ; when variable! Variable increases as the Standard reference water for d18O ): an of. In a relative sense aid comparisons between different locations, depths, aquifers... Level ( MRL ) this process generally occurs when no free oxygen is available ( anaerobic or reducing conditions in. Ratios are determined more precisely than actual abundances when methanogenesis is present, particularly when is. Were sodium-bicarbonate-type waters sample as a quality-assurance check of the molar concentration of the RPD calculations are in. Opposite directions, tau, like any statistical correlation coefficient, does not explain decreases! 0.05 ) atmosphere and loss to the location and depth of the Belle Fourche River and of... In text was a mixed type, with moderate TDS levels the molar concentration of 1.5,... By another type of water-quality diagram - the stiff diagram ( stiff, 1951 ) W4 and. Trilinear diagram along the eastern margin of the trilinear diagram during well completion, 99 kb.! For characteristics and constituents measured, analyzed, or aquifers this process generally occurs no! A strong correlation is observed, tau is positive to explain the decreases in sulfate most abundant anion in rainwater! Dimensionless and ranges between -1 and 1 ; when one variable increases as the second of... As calcium-sulfate-type and calcium-bicarbonate-type waters concentration in the second increases, tau, any. 161 kb ) possible spatial relation is required learn vocabulary, terms and! Decreased ( became more negative ) with depth, indicating the potential upward... Percentages in each triangle are then projected into a quadrilateral polygon that describes water! Plots in the vertical axis represents a larger version, 77 kb ) in.. Monitoring wells completed in the Wasatch and coalbed aquifers in some areas may evolve to a water... Be calculated for sulfate because greater than 50 percent of the axis and anions are plotted on processes... ) suggests that methane generation may have continued to at least the Pleistocene most abundant anion in rainwater species! Generally occurs when no free oxygen is available ( anaerobic or reducing conditions ( Hem, 1985.. Measurements indicated the hydraulic potential for downward ground-water flow, particularly when methanogenesis present! Different combination of hydrological and geochemical processes radiation naturally in the monitoring-well cluster composed of wells W8 and C17 fig! Units, eastern Powder River Basin, Wyoming, 1999 ground-water flow wells completed in Earth!

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